HAPPY FAMILY. Gandhi's authorisation of the detonation of a nuclear device at Pokhran in 1974 was viewed by Pakistani leader Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as an attempt to intimidate Pakistan into accepting India's hegemony in the subcontinent. In one of the early interviews she gave as prime minister, Gandhi had ruminated: "I suppose you could call me a socialist, but you have understand what we mean by that term ... we used the word [socialism] because it came closest to what we wanted to do here – which is to eradicate poverty. Family Life Her father was the first prime minister of independent India, Jawaharlal Nehru. , Gandhi was taken to the All India Institutes of Medical Sciences at 9:30 AM where doctors operated on her. Instead, Gandhi rallied a new faction of the party with her populist stance, and cemented her hold on power with a decisive parliamentary victory in 1971. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985.  Gandhi responded by having a Presidential proclamation issued; de-recognising the princes; with this withdrawal of recognition, their claims to privy purses were also legally lost.  Gandhi authorised the development of nuclear weapons in 1967, in response to Test No. Gandhi gave verbal authorisation for this test, and preparations were made in the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range. , The Congress party was a "broad church" during the independence movement; however, it started turning into a family firm controlled by Indira Gandhi's family during the emergency.  It was also quipped that Sanjay Gandhi had total control over his mother and that the government was run by the PMH (Prime Minister House) rather than the PMO (Prime Minister Office). She was married to Feroze Gandhi from 1942 until 1960. Kaufleute wie sie gehörten der dritten Kaste an und galten als gesellschaftliche und politische Oberschicht. The nationalisation drive not only helped to increase household savings, but it also provided considerable investments in the informal sector, in small- and medium-sized enterprises, and in agriculture, and contributed significantly to regional development and to the expansion of India's industrial and agricultural base. Gradually, they fell in love and decided to get married. India's entry into the nuclear weapons club in 1974 also contributed to tensions in Southeast Asia. Wenn Gandhi im Gefängnis saß (insgesamt acht Jahre), kämpfte seine Frau für ihn weiter. According to Mark Tully, "His inexperience did not stop him from using the Draconian powers his mother, Indira Gandhi, had taken to terrorise the administration, setting up what was in effect a police state. It transformed the country from a nation heavily reliant on imported grains, and prone to famine, to one largely able to feed itself, and becoming successful in achieving its goal of food security.  Gandhi thus put herself forward as a leader with a pan-Indian vision. Mahatma Gandhi was the primary leader of India’s independence movement and also the architect of a form of non-violent civil disobedience that would influence the world. Print. Nehru–Gandhi Family: Family Tree The assailants had fired 31 bullets at her, of which 30 hit her; 23 had passed through her body while seven remained inside her. Dr. Dogra stated that Gandhi had sustained as many as 30 bullet wounds, from two sources: a Sten submachine gun and a .38 Special revolver. However, Gandhi rejected calls to resign.  In 1956, Gandhi had an active role in setting up the Congress Party's Women's Section. ", "Top six political slogans and their impact", "Sunanda K Datta Ray: Rendezvous with Ronniel", "Naxalites: who are they and what are their demands? The involvement of the family has traditionally revolved around the Indian National Congress, as various members have traditionally led the party. She was died 31 October 1984 in New Delhi, India. Moreover, her government resolved never again to become "so vulnerably dependent" on aid, and painstakingly began building up substantial foreign exchange reserves. 3 November 1994. Gandhis Eltern verlobten ihn mit sieben Jahren mit der gleichaltrigen Kasturba Makharji. ", Gandhi did not often discuss her gender, but she did involve herself in women's issues before becoming the prime minister.  The Green Revolution in India subsequently culminated under her government in the 1970s. His father, Feroze Gandhi, was an Indian politician. An old image of former prime minister Indira Gandhi with Jawaharlal Nehru and two other men has gone viral with the claim that it shows her husband ‘Feroze Khan’ and father-in … , Victory over Pakistan in 1971 consolidated Indian power in Kashmir. These steps culminated in party president S. Nijalingappa expelling her from the party for indiscipline.  Gandhi came out of the language conflicts with the strong support of the south Indian populace. This established the official government policy of bilingualism in India and satisfied the non-Hindi speaking Indian states. Benazir Bhutto became the first female prime minister of Pakistan in 1988. Following the death of her father in 1964, she was appointed to Rajya Sabha, the upper level of Indian parliament, and was named minister of information and broadcasting. The alliance parties later merged to form the Janata Party under the guidance of Gandhian leader, Jayaprakash Narayan.  After her mother died, she attended the Badminton School for a brief period before enrolling at Somerville College in 1937 to study history. Gk Questions On Indira Gandhi Indira Gandhi: An Intimate Biography. Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, and Harry S. Truman Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru being greeted by U.S. Pres. Rajiv took office as prime minister following his mother's assassination in 1984; he served until December 1989. Eventually the couple earned Nehru's approval, and they married in 1942.  The remaining private sector industries were placed under strict regulatory control.  Her egalitarian upbringing with her cousins helped contribute to her sense of natural equality. Indira Gandhi's great grandfather was Gangadhar Nehru Indira Gandhi's great grandmother was Jeorani Nehru Indira Gandhi's great great grandfather was Laxmi Narayan Nehru Indira Gandhi's 3x great grandfather was Mausa Ram Kaul Indira Gandhi's uncles and aunts: https://sekho.in/indira-gandhi-family-photos-husband-sons-daughter-date-birth  However, this strategy backfired disastrously. In 1984, she ordered the Indian army to confront Sikh separatists at their sacred Golden Temple in Amritsar, resulting in several hundred reported casualties, with others estimating the human toll to be significantly higher. ", India's relationship with Pakistan remained strained following the Shimla Accord in 1972.  " And she dismissed criticism of the way her Congress Party raised election campaign money, saying all parties used the same methods. She was then admitted to Shantiniketan University, but Guru Dev Rabindranath Tagore chased her out for bad conduct as well. Since Singh refused to drop them, Congress withdrew its support and President Reddy dissolved Parliament in August 1979. Norman, Dorothy.  This was denounced as a "despicable act" by China.  After Gandhi became prime minister, diplomatic and economic relations with the states which had sided with India during the Sino-Indian War were expanded. She knew him from Allahabad.  As the world was quiet about this test, a vehement protest came from Pakistan as its prime minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, described the test as "Indian hegemony" to intimidate Pakistan.  The Mizo conflict was resolved definitively during the administration of Gandhi's son Rajiv. While some others have served the country by being the prolific members of the Parliament. Gandhi's Congress party was soundly crushed in the elections. Before the 1980 elections Gandhi approached the then Shahi Imam of Jama Masjid, Syed Abdullah Bukhari and entered into an agreement with him on the basis of 10-point programme to secure the support of the Muslim votes. Indira Gandhi, The 'Son' The Family Never Had And The Daughter Who Broke The Caste Orthodoxy When Indira was born, Hutheesingh remembered the Scottish doctor who was attending to Kamla Nehru announced to Jawaharlal Nehru: “It is a bonny lassie, Sir!” By: Rasheed Kidwai Updated: 19 November 2020, 10:08 AM (IST) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru poses with his daughter Indira Gandhi, 25 … She began a new course by launching the Fourth Five-Year Plan in 1969. , Gandhi's advocacy for women's rights began with her help in establishing the Congress Party's Women's Section. The moment she came out of those gates, she was greeted with hundreds of reporters and party workers besides her family members. , Gandhi considered the north-eastern region important, because of its strategic situation. Gandhi hatte ihren Mann Rajiv davor gewarnt, in das Geschäft seiner Familie einzusteigen, in die Politik. About Indira Gandhi. " Regardless of the controversy over the nature of the reforms, the long-term effects of the social changes gave rise to the prominence of middle-ranking farmers from intermediate and lower castes in North India.  Salma Sultan provided the first news of her assassination on Doordarshan's evening news on 31 October 1984, more than 10 hours after she was shot..  However, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 presented a dilemma for the Arab and Muslim states of the Middle East as the war was fought by two states both friendly to the Arabs. While she was studying in England, she used to make visits to her future husband, Feroze Gandhi.  Israel was viewed as a religious state, and thus an analogue to India's archrival Pakistan. That government had the distinction of being India's first-ever elected Communist Government. The operation badly damaged or destroyed parts of the Temple complex, including the Akal Takht shrine and the Sikh library. Indira Gandhi is the Third Prime Minister of India and also the Second longest-serving Prime Minister of India after her father Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Dr. Dogra extracted bullets to establish the make of the weapons used and to match each weapon with the bullets recovered by ballistic examination. In this context, Gandhi was accused of formulating populist policies to suit her political needs. Indira Gandhi released from jail on 26th December 1978. She was the only child of Jawaharlal Nehru, an important figure in the nationalist movement, a movement devoted to the improvement of culture within the … 1944), for leadership. Indira Gandhi’s middle name was Priyadarshini. ", It was said that during the Emergency he virtually ran India along with his friends, especially Bansi Lal.  She also enjoyed a close working relationship with many British leaders including conservative premiers, Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher. Gandhi joined the Congress Party's working committee in 1955, and four years later she was elected the party's president. Indira Gandhi Family Photos: She was born to the house of Kashmiri Pandit of Allahabad to Mr. Jawaharlal Nehru and his beloved wife Kamala Nehru. " At another point, she went into more detail: "To a woman, motherhood is the highest fulfilment ... To bring a new being into this world, to see its perfection and to dream of its future greatness is the most moving of all experiences and fills one with wonder and exaltation. Both Satwant and Kehar were sentenced to death and hanged in Delhi's Tihar Jail. In Bihar, Jayaprakash Narayan, the veteran leader came out of retirement to lead the protest movement there. As early as 1969, critics had begun accusing her of insincerity and machiavellianism. Indira Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend. By appealing to the economic grievances of developing countries, Gandhi and her successors exercised a moderating influence on the Non-aligned movement, diverting it from some of the Cold War issues that marred the controversial 1979 Havana meeting where Cuban leader Fidel Castro attempted to steer the movement towards the Soviet Union. Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy; Norman, Dorothy.  She was the only child (she had a younger brother who died young), and grew up with her mother, Kamala Nehru, at the Anand Bhavan, a large family estate in Allahabad. In her own accounts through her letters, she wrote to her friend Dorothy Norman, in 1952 she wrote: "At about eight or nine I was taken to France; Jeanne d'Arc became a great heroine of mine. It also led to the deaths of many Sikh fighters and innocent pilgrims. It is a known fact that after Rajiv’s birth, Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi lived separately, but they were not divorced.  Nevertheless, critics alleged that her stance was actually meant to weaken the position of rival Congress leaders from the northern states such as Uttar Pradesh, where there had been strong, sometimes violent, pro-Hindi agitations.  Related to this point were a set of policies which were meant to regulate the private sector. , The relationship between India and the Soviet Union deepened during Gandhi's rule.  The government was also successful in procuring houses for landless labourers; According to Francine Frankel, three-fourths of the targeted four million houses was achieved in 1975 alone. , In order to keep the Soviet Union and the United States out of South Asia, Gandhi was instrumental in establishing the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in 1983, Gandhi remained a staunch supporter of the Palestinians in the Arab–Israeli conflict and was critical of the Middle East diplomacy sponsored by the United States. Mai 1991 in Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu) war ein indischer Politiker.Von 1984 bis 1989 war er Premierminister Indiens.Seine Mutter Indira Gandhi war von 1966 bis 1977 und von 1980 bis zu ihrer Ermordung 1984 Premierministerin; Sein Vater Feroze Gandhi war Parse. 1946). They have two children, a son, Rahul Gandhi, and a daughter, Priyanka Gandhi. Gandhi was cremated on 3 November near Raj Ghat. Her Death Cause is Assassination. In 1975, Gandhi declared the state of Jammu and Kashmir as a constituent unit of India. Indira Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend.  The defeat of Pakistan in 1971 and the secession of East Pakistan as pro-India Bangladesh led to the collapse of the Mizo separatist movement. Gandhi to rajiv Gandhi ( or `` that woman '' as some called her.. Gandhis have been brought into the compound with stability and progressive achievement of self-reliance members have traditionally led party... 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