London: International Institute for Conservation, 1990, pp. ------ "Fluorescence of paint and varnish layers. Casein is processed from the curd of soured milk, hence its common name "milk paint." "Solubility Parameters and Varnish Removal: A Survey:" The Conservator, No. Following the examination, the practitioner should have a good idea of the coating composition, or at least its primary characteristics. This technique is frequently enhanced by burnishing the freshly oiled surface with heated pads, which serve to simultaneously accelerate the polymerization and to polish the surface yielding a relatively durable finish of high gloss. Part II" Studies in Conservation, vol. Solvent/resin solutions may be designed and formulated to fit specific characteristics required for the coating, either while liquid or once dry. Montan wax is extracted from decayed organic matter which is not completely mineralized. Colophony, or rosin, is the resin from coniferous trees. "A systematic approach to the instrumental analysis of natural finishes and binding media." Acrylic resins tend to be more stable than nitrocellulose, and in some cases are extremely stable. Its pale color makes it very useful where a transparent varnish in desired. Blackshaw, Susan, and Susan Ward. In Papers Presented at the Wooden Artifacts Group, Vancouver 1987. This might become necessary when the materials used deteriorate (remember, everything deteriorates), the object suffers further abuse, or a better treatment method is found in the future. Tyrus Amethyst Bracelet - Museum Shop Collection $53.00 $36.85. "New synthetic resins for picture varnishes;" in Cleaning, Retouching and Coatings Preprints of the Contributions to the Brussells Congress, 3-7 September 1990. Additional processing includes filtration by heating and squeezing molten lac through linen filter cloths, or by heating and dissolving the lac and filtering with finer filtering methods. 4. These range from humble tools and personal items to artefacts used in rituals such as … Metal complex pigments were synthesized by a wide variety of procedures and include: lead, zinc, titanium and other whites; cobalt, copper and prussian blues; copper and arsenic greens; iron, sulfur, lead and chrome reds; chrome, sulfur, lead and arsenic yellows, and a host of others. Arabic is obtained from the African acacia tree. They may not be well-skilled, well-trained, or well-informed, but almost always they are well-intentioned and willing to "do the right thing" when guided toward informed choices. 168-173. First, the solvent which is used to liquify the resin evaporates, followed by the polymerizing of the oil component. The list of historic finish materials is a long one encompassing hundreds of different items. Finally, being well versed in the craft of wood finishing in invaluable. Urushi is employed as a purified liquid from the exudate, and has varying transparence depending on the age of the tree, climate, and other environmental factors. The options below are roughly listed from least intrusive to most, but this listing is by no means the final word on the subject. A finish undergoing a chemical reaction which turns it very dark and makes it difficult to remove, is a problem indeed. For several of the broad option categories, several additional considerations are explored, each of which must be evaluated and considered. London: International Institute for Conservation, 1990, pp. There are also coatings of applied metal sheet, such as gold and silver leaf, which are adhered to a wood or mineral substrate with protein or resinous binders. New York: MacMillan Publishing, 1974. Detailed technical descriptions of the chemical decomposition of coating materials are available in several texts listed in the bibliography at the conclusion of this document. Earth pigments include umbers, ochres, siennas, chalk, Indian red and terra verde. courses that prepare you to earn "The Finish Crack'd," Fine Woodworking, no.49, November 1984, pp. Select a subject to preview related courses: The most common type of Roman table is the mensa, defined by a round top resting on three legs. 12-18. London: Butterworths, 1987. Instead, the guidelines presented are an attempt to provide some direction within that broad framework to help focus considerations of the damage and also the appropriate treatment options available to compensate for it. 5. All rights reserved. 2, 1982, pp. Inpainting can be conducted at any time in the treatment, and can be used in conjunction with any of the options already listed. ----- Science for Conservators. Hess's Paint Film Defects Their Causes and Cure. Visual examination includes the use of ultra-violet (UV) and infra-red (IR) illumination and imaging methods, and microscopy to further develop the characterization of the surface. The first and probably the most ancient of the opaque colorants are the earth colors, which are basically naturally occurring mineral (mostly clay) pigments. Solvent release coatings are good candidates for this procedure, even if degraded and partially polymerized. "Detergents soaps surfactants," in Dirt and Pictures Separated, Hackney, Stephen, Joyce Townsend, and Nick Eastaugh, editors. London: Crafts Council, 1983. The final step, as with most wax finishing, would be to buff with coarse linen followed by soft flannel or the like. Feller, Robert, ed. A sella was a stool, the most common kind of chair in the Roman home, used for socializing, business, and relaxation. Unfortunately for the objects in question, linseed oil becomes extremely chromagenic in the presence of acids, and in fact turns black over a relatively short period of time. Traditionally dyes came from vegetable and animal sources, but these have been supplanted by synthetic organo metallic and azo dyes. Bronze Seat found at Pompeii, now in Bronze Stand found at Herculaneum, Several detailed descriptions of these procedures and poultice formulations are present in the literature, and the reader is advised to consult them for further technical information. Linseed oil may be used alone as a transparent film, or as a binder for opaque coatings (oil paints). Acrylics are widely used in virtually every phase of the modern coatings industry, including furniture. 2, Winter 1987. 5. Inspired by the classical art of ancient Greece and Rome, the painted and gilded furniture is one of the greatest artistic triumphs of the early national period. 181-192. Silver is also widely used, both pure and in alloy, and a number of copper and aluminum alloys have been developed. Finally, the examination involves analytical methods, including instrumental determination of the coating constituency. Vegetable resins of particular importance to the history of furniture coatings are damar, colophony, copal, sandarac, mastic, elemi, benjamin, amber, manila, and urushiol. Traveling Roman Museum. An example of the terminology confusion previously mentioned is that "benjamin" is frequently identified as gum benzoin, and sandarac as gum juniper. The Roman couch, or lectus, was used for banqueting and as a bed in poorer homes. And while neither set of functions is right or wrong, each has its proper role. Ideally the poultice will have some physical integrity in order to facilitate its removal by enabling the poultice to be peeled from the surface once the cleaning is complete. A successful framework has been devised for doing exactly that, in the guise of a series of questions whose honest answers provide insightful guidance for responding to the deterioration of nearly every object in every circumstance. : J.Paul Getty Trust, 1988. The next option would be to conduct the reformation process with the addition of a compatible resinous component to the reforming solution. 74-76. The interested and engaged aficionado who doesn't care about the implications of preserving personal, family, and social history is, in my experience, a rare bird. The pictures and paintings of the ancient Roman furniture on the frescos are still found in pieces and ruins on ancient Rome. Ancient Roman furniture designs. Built of steel, limestone and ample amounts of glass, it houses an ornate 1 st-century BC altar of peace and hosts stimulating exhibitions from all corners of the art world. The Cleaning of Paintings: Problems and Potentialities. In addition to film forming materials, coating formulations frequently contain additional materials to enhance certain properties of the coating. 6. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. The ground is called gesso, and is a mixture of calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, or koalin and protein glue. London: Faber, 1979. As a group mineral waxes are among the most stable organic coating materials, and tend to be considered as reactively inert. They were light, cheap, easily portable and found all over Roman homes. They are, in other words, designer dirt. Their intractable nature and questionable stability usually remove them from consideration for use as coatings in the treatment of historic wooden artifacts. Gilding may be adhered directly to a wood substrate, but it is much more common for leaf to be placed on a mineral ground. Oil polishes and oil/resin varnishes are less thermoplastic, and depending on the formulation of the coating can also be removed with solvent solutions, although stronger solvents are required. A balance is always sought between stabilization and restoration, which may require alteration of the piece as it currently exists, while preserving the historic information contained or discovered in the piece being treated. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1986. 1. However, for the reasons enumerated above, conservators do not consider any portion of an object to be routinely expendable, including finishes and coatings. Create an account to start this course today. 56-59. 2. This allows simultaneous reformation and augmentation of the film. study The female lac bug exudes a protective coating around herself and thus around the tree branches on which she is living, in order that her offspring are protected until they have developed fully. New York: Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., 1961. 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