9th - 12th grade. The level can be calculated from this value taking the tank … Place you live:City, suburbs, rur… In this post, we define each measurement scale and provide examples of … This framework of distinguishing levels of measurement originated … 16 0 obj Ordinal. The picture above is an open tank (surface connected to the atmosphere), where there will be work pressure P1 at … As the highest of the four levels of measurement (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio), ratio level of measurement is the most precise and therefore, desirable to use in social scientific research. 15 0 obj The highest is the ratio level of measurement. These are simply ways to categorize different types of variables. ߏƿ'� Zk�!� $l$T����4Q��Ot"�y�\b)���A�I&N�I�$R$)���TIj"]&=&�!��:dGrY@^O�$� _%�?P�(&OJEB�N9J�@y@yC�R �n�X����ZO�D}J}/G�3���ɭ���k��{%O�חw�_.�'_!J����Q�@�S���V�F��=�IE���b�b�b�b��5�Q%�����O�@��%�!BӥyҸ�M�:�e�0G7��ӓ����� e%e[�(����R�0`�3R��������4�����6�i^��)��*n*|�"�f����LUo�՝�m�O�0j&jaj�j��.��ϧ�w�ϝ_4����갺�z��j���=���U�4�5�n�ɚ��4ǴhZ�Z�Z�^0����Tf%��9�����-�>�ݫ=�c��Xg�N��]�. READ PAPER. There are 4 levels of measurement, which can be ranked from low to high: Nominal: the data can only be categorized. Continuous level sensors measure level within a specified range and determine the exact amount of substance in a certain place, while point-level sensors only indicate whether the substance is above or below the sensing point. 1. 4 0 obj The chapter examines the measurement … !U���5��4:a�i�7� X׃�C]��nCl�'��~���M3�M�z���4�����xL��� �|N�m;�v��u3�́=/&$�-����ⶤ0J�0,Wa8iU�q\=��x�$��Ӵ~�I�gY���ͫ,�\�,��mY�^U-v]�wu=n�t��u����ض=v����������2\/��&��@ endobj << /ColorSpace 7 0 R /ShadingType 2 /Coords [ 0 137319 8731250 137319 ] /Domain A local animal shelter keeps track of the weights of dogs that come in. |�g3�\�6}�����o�n�Gs�n�6�K %���^!�)����C�֛�@��reJoG9�p��sw��a����S;���B^N� E1R��Aʨ�����ӳ�X?�x��u�zl������?��������|� ��31���n5]w�@7�w{hk��#���p~pC?�� �h�a��m�+}i�OM�O�zƱ�_S�?���e�q�$谯w=�N��M#��;n!�k6�|����o��I�J9_5z�t��O�s�δ�T��r�W�W���.�ʴ��x�.G��;Zct!�P�ڢV��zǸ�8� PDF | Levels of measurement describe the relationship between the numeric values researchers assign during measurement. 2. 3 years ago . The simple flowchart below shows … The Interval Level of Measurement The third or interval level of measurement is characterized by a scale that is quantitative in nature. Liquid level measurement - Basics 101 Part 1 Introduction Level measurement is one of the “Big 4” measurements in industrial plants. There are four measurement scales (or types of data): nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. At this level we can determine only whether two … 0000003525 00000 n x�b```"�*>�c`B�@P��F�6U�9��a��%Mj9�� �`[P3_�TP�}�=p�l�'�����:��_�ֲZt��ǭ�c$�v�\�6�^ݢ�&�r���I�����6Gv�Y2#c�nQ�kI�55�z)�M�6��{L��eŢl�O=ݴ�M֘u�~�z�������"Q ��v���b;Pv�,�� �0[t4 )%%�0�إ����Q�54�`6�`��P�%(CPP* jRrq�*��!l For instance the difference between 5 and 10 … Different orders make sense for a list of countries. Advanced processing means that operators aren’t spending valu-able time repeatedly troubleshooting devices—instead they can be confident that these instruments are delivering … Download PDF . 14 0 obj Non-contact radar and guided wave radar level instrumentation are popular and growing. 5 0 obj Levels of Measurement DRAFT. For continuous level measurement in conductive liquids. Mathematics. Ratio scales permit the researcher to compare both differences in scores and the relative magnitude of scores. measurement is an interval scale. This scale can also be referred to as an interval variable scale (interval variable is used to describe the meaningful nature of the difference between values). 19. This simple level measurement has a dip tube installed with the open end close to the bottom of the process vessel. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Save. These levels are nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. • Define the empirical method. Nominal scales contain the least amount of information. 0000001535 00000 n This allows researchers to take measurement from a wider range Level measurement and point level detection in small storage and bu er tanks Storage and bu¨er tanks enable a reliable material supply for various ongoing processes. Notes Edit. Examples of variables which are ratio scaled include weights, lengths and times. @ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��� This Concept introduces students to the different levels of measurement. Variable is a characteristic, number, or quantitythat increases or decreases over time, ortakes different values in differentsituations. Subject Index. endobj Eye color:Blue, green, brown 3. The lowest, or the most primitive, measurement is the nominal level. %PDF-1.3 It is not easily adopted to signal transmission techniques for remote indication or control. … 3 years ago. The level of measurement of a variable is nothing but the mathematical nature of a variable or, how a variable is measured. PDF Measurement Library. 87 0 obj<>stream Levels of Use; and Measuring Implementation in Schools: Innovation Configurations. Knowing the level of measurement of your variables is important for two reasons. The Standard defines fair value on the basis of an 'exit price' notion and uses a 'fair value hierarchy', which results in a market-based, rather than entity-specific, measurement. In a nominal level variable, values are grouped into categories that have no … 8 0 obj As such it generally involves objective measurement of the phenomena being studied, whatever these might be. The different levels of data measurement are: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales. Correct statistical procedures depend on a researcher being familiar with levels of measurement. 0000016936 00000 n The three volumes contain similar or redundant information so that each volume can stand alone as a CBAM reference. Edit. 0000007089 00000 n This distinction has consequences for the way the measured … … Data can be classified into four levels of measurement. H� ��� ��������������������������� ��� But not all data is created equal. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Level of measurement From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The "levels of measurement", or scales of measure are expressions that typically refer to the theory of scale types developed by the psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens. [ 0 1 ] /Range [ 0 1 0 1 0 1 ] /Filter /FlateDecode >> 0000003142 00000 n O*��?�����f�����`ϳ�g���C/����O�ϩ�+F�F�G�Gό���z����ˌ��ㅿ)����ѫ�~w��gb���k��?Jި�9���m�d���wi獵�ޫ�?�����c�Ǒ��O�O���?w| ��x&mf������ Due to the presence of a zero, it now makes sense to … 0000003873 00000 n 0000001160 00000 n �ɭ�����"kz�ʑ0�ؐ1��N��ۅn�-�L>�t�0_KEp*�W������h�=柲�|�v���_B-7t�e��a���x6Ei���T�������$�y�0��o1�?$Pj�� �)��^S�8� ���`� J�Vy�f �A�8� 9+�i���0����� 3�d@+T��b�cF��'c�A ]�V�h2��K�A��B�s5��)_�g�!8ȉ�8���8ѓѲ�.����mf��RϞ*��p!uI����)��K5@7.I��/�R�^�u�{�+�[T���f��B�\fj���23V@�� ˆ��S'�A��x"B’�(�m��`,��q 0�LT��(�+.5T@Wƹ��|���mOڌi�`��t ��U��8��G�i�S������3%&�!g�U�b�.����� �g�Fz����Ho��HM���� U���Ji-(}�]��D�'�Z�Έm��g�=Ь�#C��O�8�������~2�޸�/��D�G�R�᢬ƣ�U�j+[�XQ�R��������HZ��$И)Z��)qRh�/��*���.�!�PĚ� This topic is usually discussed in the context of academic teaching and less often in the “real world.” If you are brushing up on this concept for a statistics test, thank a psychologist researcher named Stanley Stevens for … IFRS 13 applies to IFRSs that require or permit fair value measurements or disclosures and provides a single IFRS framework for measuring fair value and requires disclosures about fair value measurement. 0000004303 00000 n (ratio, interval or ordinal?) 2307 times. endobj Hydrostatic pressure has been around, it seems forever, and is proven in many applications. A variable has one of four different levels of measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, or Ratio. Indicators at higher or more precise levels (interval, ratio) of measurement are more likely to be reliable than less precise measures because the latter reveal less information. A 120 IQ is not twice as intelligent as a 60 IQ. A local animal shelter keeps track of the weights of dogs that come in. E�6��S��2����)2�12� ��"�įl���+�ɘ�&�Y��4���Pޚ%ᣌ�\�%�g�|e�TI� ��(����L 0�_��&�l�2E�� ��9�r��9h� x�g��Ib�טi���f��S�b1+��M�xL����0��o�E%Ym�h�����Y��h����~S�=�z�U�&�ϞA��Y�l�/� �$Z����U �m@��O� � �ޜ��l^���'���ls�k.+�7���oʿ�9�����V;�?�#I3eE妧�KD����d�����9i���,�����UQ� ��h��6'~�khu_ }�9P�I�o= C#$n?z}�[1 Flavors of frozen yogurt _____ 2. findaka. Nominal scales. The level measurement can be either continuous or point values. Jump to navigation Jump to search. SECTION 1 Low Level DC Measuring Instruments. Levels of Measurement: Nominal Ordinal Interval The Mean: The arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution equal This Concept introduces students to the different levels of measurement. Interval. Discrete … Ratio . x��׮�@ ���7�������,�/���X9����_A��;���|� ��3�+�_..�$�#{���ߟ,���D��^. There is a hierarchy of these different levels of measurement. Levels of Measurement DRAFT. With the lower levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal), assumptions are typically less restrictive … Define and distinguish among nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales; Identify a scale type; Discuss the type of scale used in psychological measurement; Give examples of errors that can be made by failing to understand the proper use of measurement … Statistics and Levels of Measurement How to figure things out. This classification of levels of measurement was first proposed by S. S. … An examination of measurement levels, including nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio levels, is provided. Part 7 of this volume includes scales that measure a wide variety of social and behavioral variables. The fourth and highest level of measurement is the ratio level. <]>> Siemens level measurement instruments let you get on with your day. For example, consider a hypothetical study in which \(5\) children are asked to choose their favorite color from blue, red, yellow, green, and purple. 0000000716 00000 n Independent variable: that can take different values and can cause corresponding changes in other variables.2Dependent variable: that can take … Show page numbers. �����-�C�t)�K�ݥ��[��k���A���d��$�L�}*�⋫�IA��-��z���R�PVw�"(>�xA(�E��;�d&Yj�e�|����o����B����%�6sɨ���c��:��!�Q,�V=���~B+���[?�O0W'�l�Wo�,rK%���V��%�D��jݴ���O����M$����6�����5G��Š9,��Bxx|��/��vP�O���TE�"k�J��C{���Gy7��7P��ہuȪ��u��R,��^Q�9�G��5��L߮���cD����|x7p�d���Yi����S���ශ��X���]S�zI;�߮��o�HR4;���Y� =r�JEO ��^�9����՜��g�T%&��� endstream Levels of Measurement DRAFT. 4 3/4 Happiness research at the individual vs. the collective level Happiness can be measured at two levels, the individual and the collective one. endobj Blood type:O-, O+, A-, A+, B-, B+, AB-, AB+ 5. Students classified by their reading ability: Above average, Below average, Normal _____ 4. 3. Level measurement in the most diverse applications Radar pulses or ultrasonic waves are emitted by a sender, reflected by the product surface and again detected by a receiver. The air pressure in the bubble pipe varies proportionally with the change in … Each of the levels of measurement provides a different level of detail. 18 0 obj There are actually four different data measurement scales that are used to categorize different types of data: 1. QMIN (2006-02-07) Measurement - 1.2 1.1.3 Interval Scales In ordinal scales, the interval between adjacent values is not constant. View STATS 221 Quiz 1 Review .pdf from STATS 221 at University of Washington. << /TT2 12 0 R /TT1 11 0 R >> /Shading << /Sh1 8 0 R /Sh2 9 0 R >> >> Levels of Measurement DRAFT. The plant operators need to have exact level data from these tanks at all times to ensure timely replenishment and facilitate continuous production. 0000002389 00000 n xref Ordinal: the data can be categorized and ranked. 4. Generally the latter detect levels that are excessively high or low. IQ tests (interval scale). " 711 However, not all measurements are the same. In Statistics, the variables or numbers are defined and categorised using different scales of measurements.Each level of measurement scale has specific properties that determine the various use of statistical analysis. Show page numbers . 69% average accuracy. 0000001421 00000 n << /Length 18 0 R /N 3 /Alternate /DeviceRGB /Filter /FlateDecode >> %PDF-1.2 %���� by findaka. Measurement levels refer to different types of variables that imply how to analyze them. 0000002818 00000 n %��������� [ /ICCBased 15 0 R ] In 1946, Harvard University psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens developed the theory of the four levels of measurement when he published an article in Science entitled, "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement." 11 Full PDFs related to this paper. Prerequisites. (Interval and Ratio levels of measurement are sometimes called Continuous or Scale). 0000001943 00000 n 0000005086 00000 n Indicate which level of measurement is being used in the given scenario. << /Length 19 0 R /FunctionType 0 /BitsPerSample 8 /Size [ 1365 ] /Domain Luxembourg. An interval of one calendar year (2005 to 2006, 2014 to 2015) always has the same meaning. " nominal variables; ordinal variables; interval variables; ratio variables. Levels of Measurement. Ratio: the data can be categorized, ranked, evenly spaced and has a natural zero. ! Use Multiple Indicators a. Interval level (a.k.a differences or subtraction level) ! ������r=)�%�[���X��3".b�8��zᇅ�J>q�n���^�\��;�O*fJ�bﵺ��(r��FNԎX�ɂ�H�g ˍy�O����+�-bUɠMR(GI��Z'�i���r0w]̈́�Ϣ*x����šu��]�Be�]w�*�BQ�*�؊�S�����㧝ˍ��aa����,�Ϧ�)�)�4;��`g�>�w{��|n J��ˈ��j��m*`��Y����,�6��M����=�Ұ��*&�:z�^=��Xź�p}(���[Go�Zj���eqRN�֧�z]U����%tACͼ��^�N��m��{��Х�%cy�cE���[:3����W��?�.�-}*}%��>�.�"]�.J_K�JK_���͐{�$2s%��խ��טX9*o�����Qy�U)���� ͋�7��X���i��b�: m�ש���Ko��i1�]��D0���� N �}���`����� ��*�*�6? Easily integrate our PDF measuring tools into your application or workflow. It is the coldest and weakest level of data measurement among the four. 17 0 obj endstream Level Measurement. stream 0000006377 00000 n Levels of Measurement for Quantitative Data! Not every statistical operation can be used with every set of data. 4�.0,` �3p� ��H�.Hi@�A>� [ 0 1 ] /Range [ 0 1 0 1 0 1 ] /Filter /FlateDecode >> The interval scale is the third level of measurement and encompasses both nominal and ordinal scales. The “higher” the measurement level, the more information a variable holds. endobj Nominal Scale. << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Resources 6 0 R /Contents 4 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 720 540] 0000000016 00000 n Use a Precise Level of Measurement a. The ordinal level of measurement is second in terms of its refinement as a means of classifying information. Germany; 5. Digital stopwatch Measure short time interval (in minutes … High quality non-corrosive materials (carbon fibre, stainless steel) make it suitable even for aggressive liquids (e.g. example The Ordinal Level of Measurement A team of nurse researchers designed a research project to compare the degree of social support (SS) perceived by 100 teenage girls … LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT NOMINAL ORDINAL INTERVAL RATIO EXAMPLES Names of activities, locations, gender Ranks, preferences Attitude scales, Length of stay, income, age PROPERTIES Identity (equivalence) Identity, magnitude (relativity) Identity, magnitude , equal intervals Identity, magnitude, equal intervals, true zero MATHEMATICAL 0000006766 00000 n Data at the ratio level possess all of the features of the interval level, in addition to a zero value. An interval scale has a measured on a ratio scale but every human has a height greater than 0. h��"��y�z�M*�h���̛���v�HI��X����A�Ӗn�4-��ﰄQc�M� Types of Data & Measurement Scales: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio CSc 238 Fall 2014 There are four measurement scales (or types of data): nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. x�U[�U��9� File; File history; File usage on Commons; Metadata; Size of this JPG preview of this PDF file: 800 × 565 pixels. An example of the direct method is the dipstick in your car which measures the height of the oil in the oil pan. Subject Easy-item Difficulty-item score A 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 B 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 7 D 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 9 Consequences of Scales of measurement Levels of Measurement. stream 85 0 obj<> endobj 2 0 obj ��.3\����r���Ϯ�_�Yq*���©�L��_�w�ד������+��]�e�������D��]�cI�II�OA��u�_�䩔���)3�ѩ�i�����B%a��+]3='�/�4�0C��i��U�@ёL(sYf����L�H�$�%�Y�j��gGe��Q�����n�����~5f5wug�v����5�k��֮\۹Nw]������m mH���Fˍe�n���Q�Q��`h����B�BQ�-�[l�ll��f��jۗ"^��b���O%ܒ��Y}W�����������w�vw����X�bY^�Ю�]�����W�Va[q`i�d��2���J�jGէ������{�����׿�m���>���Pk�Am�a�����꺿g_D�H��G�G��u�;��7�7�6�Ʊ�q�o���C{��P3���8!9������-?��|������gKϑ���9�w~�Bƅ��:Wt>���ҝ����ˁ��^�r�۽��U��g�9];}�}��������_�~i��m��p���㭎�}��]�/���}������.�{�^�=�}����^?�z8�h�c��' !�'��O�Z�b+{��'�>}\I��R�u�1Y��-n6yq��wS�#��s���mWD+���7�w���{Bm�Ͷ?���#�J{�8���(�_?�Z7�x�h��V��[��������|U 2612 In addition, the measured values form the basis of the statistical … x�TMo1��W�1�T�_�ks�rA Q�R�(� Measurement is the assignment of scores to individuals so that the scores represent some characteristic of the individuals measured • Measurement is the foundation, but whether or not statistics can be interpreted depends on research design issues. endobj A flow of gas (usually air) passes through the tube and when air bubbles escape from the open end, the air pressure in the tube corresponds to the hydraulic head of the liquid in the vessel. Level measurement method is relatively inexpensive. endobj x��wTS��Ͻ7��" %�z �;HQ�I�P��&vDF)VdT�G�"cE��b� �P��QDE�݌k �5�ޚ��Y�����g�}׺ P���tX�4�X���\���X��ffG�D���=���HƳ��.�d��,�P&s���"7C$ Well, we could sort them alphabetically, according to their sizes or to numbers of inhabitants. endstream Psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens developed the best-known classification with four levels, or scales, of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. ���ss�}��c�e�Ox;��\��������. (e.g. There are four levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. In this famous article, Stevens argued that all measurement is conducted using four measurement levels. Amount of money in savings accounts_____ 3. Ratio Level of Measurement . endobj Levels/Scales of Measurement endobj OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter students will be able to: • State the question that statistics is always trying to answer. We don’t assume that higher values mean “more” of something and lower numbers signify “less”. A1�v�jp ԁz�N�6p\W� p�G@ endstream endobj 97 0 obj<>stream So what's the correct order for these countries? Indicate which level of measurement is being used in the given scenario. endobj • Compare quantitative and qualitative variables. endstream endobj 86 0 obj<> endobj 88 0 obj<> endobj 89 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 90 0 obj<> endobj 91 0 obj<> endobj 92 0 obj<> endobj 93 0 obj<> endobj 94 0 obj<> endobj 95 0 obj<> endobj 96 0 obj<>stream findaka. For example, a fund manager may choose to … 6 0 obj Liquid level measuring devices are classified into two groups: (a) direct method, and (b) inferred method. Author(s) Dan Osherson and David M. Lane. In this article, we will learn four types of scales such as nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scale. In this case, we simply are using the numbers as shorter placeholders for the lengthier text terms. �8U����R�tĮ�sZ��b����˅}ZFz���W%B���7#��>���d�P_g[t/�JkɄ Add the ability to calculate the dimensions of an area, distances between lines or trace the perimeter of an object on PDF, CAD & 20 + file types. What scale of measurement is number of item recalled? Mathematics. H��VMo�6��W��6��H��c�:hڠI�@AY�*Y����n�}��/�(Z���0�z��͐3�}����T�C �q�}N]��T���r�k���Sr�� 7 0 obj Save. For example, the difference in finishing time between the 1st place horse and the 2nd horse need not the same as that between the 2nd and 3rd place horses. FIGURE 1-1: Standard Symbols Used in this Text 1-2 SECTION 1 Symbol Unit Quantity Quantities V A Ω C s W F Hz K EMF current resistance charge time power … Variables Learning Objectives. Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables. 0 0000013786 00000 n endobj Levels of Measurement.pdf - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. << /Length 16 0 R /N 3 /Alternate /DeviceRGB /Filter /FlateDecode >> Type of lock/watch Use and accuracy -10 Atomic Clock Measure very short time intervals of about 10 seconds. Ordinal implies that the values of variables can be rank-ordered from highest to lowest. Four Levels of Measurement and the Statistics Appropriate to Each Level . 6 Measurement-11 Levels of Measurement: Nominal This is the most basic level of measurement. Ratio level of measurement includes all the characteristics of … Broadly, there are 4 levels of measurement for the variables – 1. 69% average accuracy. Belgium; 3. [7A�\�SwBOK/X/_�Q�>Q�����G�[��� �`�A�������a�a��c#����*�Z�;�8c�q��>�[&���I�I��MS���T`�ϴ�k�h&4�5�Ǣ��YY�F֠9�=�X���_,�,S-�,Y)YXm�����Ěk]c}džj�c�Φ�浭�-�v��};�]���N����"�&�1=�x����tv(��}�������'{'��I�ߝY�)� Σ��-r�q�r�.d.�_xp��Uە�Z���M׍�v�m���=����+K�G�ǔ����^���W�W����b�j�>:>�>�>�v��}/�a��v���������O8� � In nominal scales, the numbers assigned to each variable or observation are only used to classify the variable or observation. Stevens proposed his theory in a 1946 Science article titled "On the theory of scales of measurement". Ⱦ�h���s�2z���\�n�LA"S���dr%�,�߄l��t� 9 0 obj Levels of Measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio. endobj �FV>2 u�����/�_$\�B�Cv�< 5]�s.,4�&�y�Ux~xw-bEDCĻH����G��KwF�G�E�GME{E�EK�X,Y��F�Z� �={$vr����K���� In statistics, we use data to answer interesting questions. Calendar years (interval scale). " << /ColorSpace 7 0 R /ShadingType 2 /Coords [ 0 266700 285750 266700 ] /Domain The Fahrenheit scale is a clear example of the interval scale of measurement. 3. Entry Reader’s Guide Entries A-Z Subject Index Entry. Because of the multiplicative property of ratio scales, it is possible to make statements that 60 mg of fluoexetine is three times as great as 20 mg. 1.2 Measurement Scales: Other Views We presented the traditional classification of measurement scales because the terminology is widely used in … This topic is usually discussed in the context of academic 2. France; 4. Political Preference: Republican, Democrat, Independent 6. Dip Sticks and Lead Lines Flexible lines fitted with end weights called chains or lead … Other resolutions: 320 × 226 pixels | 640 × 452 pixels | 1,024 × … ��K0ށi���A����B�ZyCAP8�C���@��&�*���CP=�#t�]���� 4�}���a � ��ٰ;G���Dx����J�>���� ,�_“@��FX�DB�X$!k�"��E�����H�q���a���Y��bVa�bJ0՘c�VL�6f3����bձ�X'�?v 6��-�V`�`[����a�;���p~�\2n5��׌���� �&�x�*���s�b|!� All level measurement systems rely upon certain characteristics of the process material, such as density, capacitance, temperature, etc., and each has its own particular advantages and disadvantages. endstream The way a set of data is measured is called its level of measurement. 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